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The presence of plant-disturbing organisms or weeds on your farm can cause competition with staple crops. Competition or competition that occurs is usually in the struggle for nutrients, capture light, absorption of water and living space. Besides that weeds can also pollute the quality of your land production. For example, the contamination of seeds by weed seeds. Weed can also remove substances or liquids that contain toxins, as a place to live pests plant pests. As a result of all that will impact on the increasing costs of your farming business and a decrease in crop productivity.
Weed is one of the main obstacles in agriculture or crop cultivation. Weeds are able to live and grow rapidly on the land of your cultivation so that later it will affect the development of plants and can result in a decrease in yields both in terms of quality and in terms of quantity.
According to morphology, the types of weeds can be divided into three groups. The three groups have their own characteristics that require special strategies in controlling weeds. The three weed groups are as follows:
Tekian Teki Weed Group
This type of weed is known to have exceptional resistance to mechanical control. This is because this type of tek weed has tuber stems that grow in the soil and can last for months. In addition, these pests can run photosynthetic pathways. Where this is able to make it very efficient in mastering the cultivation area very quickly.
The characteristic of this type of weed is that it has a rounded cross section of a rounded, non-hollow stem, has sequential leaves along the stem, does not have a leaf tongue and hidden growth points. This group includes the type of weed Cyperaceae. Examples are Cyperus rotundus / field puzzle, Cyperus kyllinga / udelan and Scirpus moritimus.
Grass Weed Group
This type of weed has stolons, not tubers. This stolon is in the soil and forms a complex network that is very difficult to overcome by controlling weed mechanically. Characteristics of this weed is a solitary leaf on the books, arranged in two rows, parallel with a leaf blade, consisting of two parts, namely leaf blade and leaf midrib. The tongue of the leaf is clearly demarcated between the leaf midrib and the leaf blade.
Examples of these types of weeds are Imperata cylindrica / alang – alang, Cynodon dactylon / kawatan grass and Digitaria sanguinalis / grasshopper.
Broadleaf Weed Group
These weeds grow a lot at the end of the cultivation period. The competition that occurs between these plants and cultivated plants is the competition to get light. There are stomata on the leaves, especially on the lower surface. There are shoots on the nodusa and there are growing points located on the branch.
Examples of broadleaf gumla are Physalis angulata L / cep need, Mikania michranta / swollen hair and Ageratum conyzoides L / wedusan.
Once you get to know the types of weeds, here are ways to control weeds that you can do.
Weed Control Mechanically
The control of weeds by mechanical means can be divided into:
- Pull out weeds.
- Treading – weed.
- Carry out land management.
- Weed burning.
- Use of mulch.
Weed Control With Technical Culture Systems
Control in this way can be done in a way, namely:
- Make a good spacing, arrange so that the environment is more profitable for cultivation plants than weeds.
- Perform crop rotation. This is important because some weeds are able to adapt to certain plants.
- Perform intercropping cropping patterns. Weeds usually grow by following a certain crop growth cycle. If you plant one type of plant that has different properties, then there is a possibility that other plants can suppress the growth of weeds.
Chemical Weed Control
For chemical control of weeds, you can use herbicides. According to the work system, herbicides are divided into several types. These include:
- Contact herbicides.
- Systemic herbicide.
- Soil herbicide.
While the application of herbicides to control weeds can be divided into:
- Treatment evenly.
- Treat lane.
- Local treatment.
Weed Control Biologically
Weed control by biological means is to use insects that can inhibit the growth of weeds. To control weeds biologically, there are a number of conditions you need, these are:
- The activity and spread of natural enemies can be managed and controlled by you. It must be monofagged and there are no alternative hosts in the form of cultivated plants.
- Covers a large area
- Safe in its application.
Above conditions you must pay attention. Do not let the future you can not control insects than controlling the weeds themselves. If these requirements are met, biological control is the safest and best way.